20th Century
Three Psychologies


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Review Questions


1. "Freud was a strict determinist." Explain this statement.

2. Describe Jean Charcot's influence on Freud's work.

3. Describe Josef Breuer's influence on Freud's work. What is the cathartic method? What led to the breakup of Freud and Breuer's partnership?

4. Freud eventually quit using hypnotism in his treatment of patients. Why? What alternative techniques did he develop?

5. What were Freud's primary sources of data? Evaluate these sources.

6. Describe Freud's "layers" of the personality. Which layer did Freud emphasize and why?

7. Describe in detail Freud's structural model of the personality - the id, ego, and superego.

8. Define the following Freudian concepts:

A. Pleasure principle
B. Eros (life instinct) and Thanatos (death instinct)
C. Libido
D. Displacement
E. Sublimation
F. Repression
G. Suppression

9. Describe Freud's view of basic human nature.


1. Skinner was a "radical determinist." Explain.

2. How was John B. Watson influential on Skinner?

3. Who was the noted Russian physiologist whose methods were like those of Skinner's using dogs?

4. What is the difference in positive and negative reinforcement?

5. How were Skinner's writings similar to those of Darwin? (p. 51)

6. How did Skinner use the laboratory to deal with human behavior?

7. Define the following Skinnerian terms:

A. Operant behavior
B. Reinforcement
C. Conditioned behavior
D. Superstitious behavior
E. Extinction
F. Conditioend reinforcement
G. Punishment
H. Discrimination


1. Discuss freedom in Rogers' philosophy?

2. Why did Rogers use the term "client" instead of "patient"?

3. What is client-centered therapy?

4. When does growth begin, according to Rogers?

5. "Rogers was holistic in his thinking." Explain.

6. "Rogers was humanistic." Explain.

7. What is unconditional positive regard?

8. What is a fully functioning person? It this state of mind possible?

9. What is the difference in an encounter group and group therapy?

10. Why is client-centered therapy hard to conduct?

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